Editor’s Note: Continuing our retrospective on the American “sewer socialism” movement.

By Jason Sibert

Former Milwaukee Mayor Daniel Hoan carved out a special place in sewer socialist and Socialist Party of America history. As the 32nd mayor of Milwaukee, he led the longest serving socialist administration in an American municipality in our history, as he led the midwestern city as mayor from 1916 to 1940.

Hoan began his political career with his election to city attorney for Milwaukee in 1910. This was the same year Emil Seidel was elected mayor of Milwaukee as the first socialist leader of a major city in the United States. Over the next six years, Hoan clamped down on the corruption of public officials. The sewer socialist broke with his party in World War I. While Socialist Party of America opposed the war, Hoan organized the Milwaukee County Council of Defense.

As mayor, Hoan developed a reputation for efficient government. He implemented progressive reforms, including what some call the country’s first public housing project. It would be more accurate to call it a government-supported housing co-op because today’s public housing is owned by the government. The project occurred at a time when Milwaukee’s population was increasing faster than its housing stock. As soon as he started his mayoral term, one of Hoan‘s major policies was city beautification and planning which he saw as a means to “maximize the use of the city‘s authority to reduce the high cost of living.”

In 1918, he renewed the idea for a city planned public housing project by organizing his Housing Commission.The Housing Commission was a ten-man collective of city employees and Milwaukee businessmen that had two goals. The first was to look at how to alleviate the housing problem in the short term, while the second was to look for long-term solutions for Milwaukee’s affordable housing shortage. After two years of research, the Commission believed they found their answer in a municipally funded and planned cooperative housing development.  In 1920 the Garden Homes Company was organized under Wisconsin law by Mayor Hoan to “promote the economic erection, cooperative ownership and administration of healthy homes.” The company was capitalized at $500,000 with the City of Milwaukee buying 500 shares for $50,000. Shares would also be purchased by the owners of the homes. After twenty years, all the stock would be retired, and the property of Garden Homes would then be fully owned by the residents. The Garden Homes Company bought twenty-nine acres of farmland north of the city limits in 1921 and Mayor Hoan presided over the groundbreaking in September of that year.

Architect William Schuchardt, a Milwaukee native and Chairman of the Garden Homes Company, planned the neighborhood. Schuchardt had traveled to Europe several times, both after graduation from Cornell University in 1895 and again in 1911. It was during these trips that he encountered the planned, cooperative Garden Cities of Ebenezer Howard, which were also being used in the United States during the City Beautiful movement at this time. Both put an importance on large areas of green space that would be open for anyone in the community to use.

There were problems with Garden Cities, and it is considered a mix of success and failure by many. Annexation of the area into the City of Milwaukee was controversial. The addition of street and sewer improvements that the occupants of Garden Homes were forced to pay for, though they were not included within the price of the house. Residents became disenchanted with the situation after realizing that any money they spent on improvements to their homes would be lost unless they stayed for twenty-five years to fulfill ownership. In June 1925, the state legislature enacted the Garden Homes Law Amendment which permitted the sale of the homes for private profit. The Garden Homes Company finally closed in 1933, only after functioning to sell the remaining housing stock and pay off their loans.

However, there was more to the Hoan Administration than housing. He also led the successful drive towards municipal ownership of the stone quarry, street lighting, sewage disposal, and water purification. During Hoan’s administration, Milwaukee implemented the first public bus system in the United States. This was prompted by dangerous accidents: pedestrians were run over by street trolleys that ran down the middle of the road. Among the victims of such streetcar accidents was Hoan’s fellow Socialist, Victor L. Berger, who was killed in 1929. The mayor also experimented with the municipal marketing of food and providing public markets.  

Hoan was defeated for mayor in 1940, and one year later he joined the Democratic Party. He ran unsuccessfully for governor in 1944 and 1946. In 1948 he ran for mayor another time and was defeated by socialist Frank Zeidler. Hoan lived until 1961 and will always be remembered for his prodigious list of accomplishments.

Jason Sibert is the Executive Director of the Peace Economy Project in St. Louis.


By Michael Mottern

Performed not too far outside of Buffalo, New York in the suburb of Williamsville,“Future Wars” is an anti-war two-acter presented by First Look Buffalo Theater Company, giving its first East Coast premiere right outside of the Queen City. It is a sci-fi drama, and the actors are all professional even though it is staged at a local high school theater. In Act I , called “Reset”, one of the main characters is a combination of Jean Claude Van Damme and Dolph Lundgren from “Universal Soldier”, itself a science fiction drama about future warfare, and the play “Waiting for Godot,” primarily because there are only two main characters, both of them robotic soldiers about to die in what seems a makeshift desert.

“Reset” has a tremendous amount of foul language, with soldiers dropping the f-bombs every 2 minutes. But it’s a good drama indeed, with its robotic soldiers sporting wires coming out of their feet and arms, waiting to “reset” Actor Jacob Applegate hits a grand slam for being the most out-there robot in a universal soldier type of world, as he is haunted by the spirit of the child he killed in the Middle East, (played by Madeline Allard Dugan. Bob Rusch is a seasoned actor who co-stars, reading from his cell phone,  informing his comrade (Applegate) that he  must “reset” in order to keep from overheating.

Written by Samantha Macher, “Reset” is directed by Mike Doben, who does an excellent job at the dramatization of modern-day warfare “robotically” and is truly going to reset your mind. But it is “Overlay” which makes you rethink the inequities of US immigration policy. The same way we got to rethink “reality” in the science fashion movie “They Live” starring Rowdy Piper.

Ms Dugan also appears in Act II, “Overlay,” as Kayla in a weird spooky dark story about two British citizens and the policy of US immigration. Steven Maiseke is Mo, a defense worker temporarily working as a war technician. Haunted by the Cold War, this isn’t a drama you’re going to want to miss. 

“Overlay” is directed by Drew McCabe and performed brilliantly by Madeline and Steven the two main characters desperately trying to get American citizenship to escape their war-torn countriesd before they realize the meaning of the word “home”. As Stacy in the play “Overlay”, Becky Globus does a fantastic job in playing the psychologist, in another way strange scenario of finding disembodies body parts like fingers and toes, to cope with the everyday stresses of war on a person’s mind. Also featured is actor Bruce Rusch from “Reset” as the disgruntled veteran Brock, who was told he and his fellow soldiers were killing stuffed animals (teddy bears), when they were really reaping havoc on people.

This brings to mind that for over 70 years “social democracy has kept us out of wars for the longest period of time pre-911, changing with the war in Afghanistan,” according to Sheri Berman, professor at Barnard college who explained it to our group (the SD), at our convention in 2014. War is not the answer!

Because of the amount of swearing and foul language I would recommend “Future Wars” for an audience of 16 years and up. This is a good Sci-Fi double feature you won’t want to miss!

Michael Mottern is the first vice chair of Social Democrats USA. 

Will a Green Party spoiler give the margin of victory to far-right GOP candidate in NC’s Senate race?

The Green Party is once again running a spoiler candidate, this time in the very close race for the U.S. Senate in North Carolina. Green candidate Matthew Hoh, an author, peace activist, and disabled former U.S. Marine, may divert enough votes from Democratic candidate Cheri Beasley to guarantee that the GOP wins the seat, thus possibly giving the GOP control of the Senate on top of the House, which the Trump party is already expected to win.

Since the GOP has now unmistakably morphed into a white supremacist, anti-Semitic and violently authoritarian party, a turnover of control of the Senate thanks to a few thousand spoiler votes in North Carolina could spell the beginning of the end for democracy in our country.

But what do the leaders of the Greens care? They are the same sect that didn’t even blink an eye when Jill Stein, their candidate for President in 2016, provided Trump’s margin of victory in four key battleground states (thanks in part to a Moscow social media blitz to get progressive Democrats and independents to vote for her instead of Hillary Clinton).…/russians-launched-pro-jill…). The Greens thus played a major role in unleashing our ongoing national nightmare.

In 2018 an unhinged Green convention virtually declared war on the Democrats, not Trump. They were already in the process of selecting 10 spoiler candidates for potentially close House, Senate and gubernatorial races from Arizona to upstate New York, with the aim of preventing Democratic victories. Luckily none succeeded.

The Greens were, in 2016 and 2018, and still are today–even after January 6–motivated by a fanatical hatred of the Democrats. But they see little political difference between the two major parties except that the Democrats are the ones they hope to replace.

Stein has certainly not changed her tune. Since 2016 she has refused to reveal who paid for her trip to Moscow in Dec. 2015 to participate in a round-table dinner with mass murderer and Crimea occupier Vladimir Putin, former U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency chief Mike Flynn, and several other individuals. Also, Stein has not revealed any private discussions she might have held with Russian officials during her trip, in spite of the support her campaign subsequently received from the Russians.

Now Stein is back in the picture, strongly supporting Mr. Hoh, whose views on Putin’s aggression in Ukraine have been, at best, ambiguous. Among other efforts, Stein strongly supported Hoh in a Zoom fireside chat with him on Oct. 5.

If Putin was delighted to make the Greens his puppets in 2016, he must be equally delighted at the prospect of an increasingly pro-Russia and anti-Ukraine GOP winning control of the Senate.

Here are excerpts from a memorandum to President Biden signed by Hoh and other members of the Steering Group of Veteran Intelligence Professionals for Sanity (VIPS) last May, when Putin’s horrifying ruthlessness in Ukraine was already becoming clear.

The memo began: “Mainstream media have marinated the minds of most Americans in a witches’ brew of misleading information on Ukraine…” And then, in one of their summary points, the signers appeared to accept Putin’s view of the nature of the Ukraine government:

“Nazi sympathizers in Ukraine will not escape attention on May 9, as Russia celebrates the 77th anniversary of the victory by the Allies over Nazi Germany. Every Russian knows that more than 26 million Soviets died during that war…Denazification of Ukraine is one of the key factors accounting for Putin’s approval level of above 80 percent….”

In their most cynical paragraph, the signers even tried to blame failure to make progress on global warming on the U.S. decision to help Ukraine fend off invasion: “In last year’s ‘Threat Assessment’, National Intelligence Director Avril Haines identified climate change as a major national security and ‘human security’ challenge that can only be met by nations working together. War in Ukraine is already diverting much needed attention from this impending threat to coming generations.”

Many of the predictions put forward in the memo have subsequently been shown to be wrong. And factually, the “Nazi” nature of the Ukrainian government was already known to be false (the country’s president is Jewish and it was Putin who was bankrolling neo-nazi, neo-fascist and Christian nationalist groups in both Western and Eastern Europe).

Overall, the memo puts the blame for the crisis on the West (“the U.S. and NATO”), not on Putin, although it was his regime that invaded a sovereign nation on trumped-up charges and was already committing horrific war crimes. The memo signers seem unaware that if the U.S. and NATO had not taken action to arm Ukraine, the invasion would have succeeded–and NATO, already weakened by the machinations of former President Trump (clearly a Putin admirer and hostile to NATO), would have become an empty shell.

American progressives who are alarmed by the spread of authoritarianism/fascism in our own country and around the world should stop ignoring the U.S. Green sect’s self-serving addiction to spoiler races that always help the Right and, in recent years, the farthest Right. The Green sect (the national leadership and some of the state parties) are not part of the progressive movement. They are a malignant faction with no sense of the danger of fascism that is looming in our country, only a concentration on their own political fantasies. This faction should be boycotted by progressives, and its attempts to make alliances on the liberal-left should be rebuffed in no uncertain language. When possible, state and local Green organizations that truly operate in a decentralized fashion and try to avoid helping the GOP should be encouraged to publicly acknowledge the destructiveness of the national leadership’s spoiler tactics.

The trickery of the Greens in North Carolina this year may not work; Beasley may win anyway or she may lose by a margin far beyond what the Greens took away. But the Green spoiler in 2024 when Trump or one of his clones is on the ballot may do better, especially if Democrats are demoralized by increased political polarization. Activists and campaign teams should be prepared to warn the public against the Greens’ favorite political tactic in a more aggressive manner than anyone has attempted before now.


Editor’s Note: Continuing our retrospective on the American “sewer socialism” movement.


By Jason Sibert

The early 20th century sewer socialist movement used socialist-oriented municipal politics to improve the lives of metropolitan residents. Sewer socialists fought for publicly owned sewers and electrical grids (so residents didn’t have to pay for the profit margins of a private systems), quality parks, quality education, quality public safety, quality infrastructure, a vibrant labor movement (sometimes achieved), and financially sound government.

A must issue for an updated sewer socialist movement is housing. Homelessness is present in our cities; rents are going up and putting pressure on the budgets of working people in metropolitan areas (in the rural areas as well); and buying seems out of reach for many.  Housing cooperatives are the answer to our housing affordability crises and should be a cause embraced by modern sewer socialists.

Back in 2013, I penned a story on coops during the great recession (Addressing Housing Affordability Using Cooperatives |  I detailed the efforts of Presidents Herbert Hoover and Franklin Roosevelt to expand homeownership and suggested federal involvement in housing cooperatives. According to the National Association of Housing Cooperatives, cooperative housing is defined as when “people join together on a democratic basis to own and control the housing or community facilities where they live.” According to the NAHC, 1.2 million families live in cooperative housing in the United States.

In my 2013 story, I suggested the creation of a Cooperative Housing Authority to promote coop housing. While I still think this is a good idea, creative sewer socialists could work to bring something similar about on the local level. Sewer socialist mayors and aldermen could allocate city funds to housing coop projects. Perhaps the coops could pay back the city funds within time. Housing coops usually charge so much to purchase a share in the cooperative and then a carrying charge (something like rent or mortgage in terms of monthly costs). Of course, each coop member is allowed a vote on the governing of the coop. By cutting an actual landlord out of the picture, housing coops offer working people cheaper housing. Keep in mind, housing coops could take the form of apartment complexes or single-family houses.

Low-wage workers in the restaurant, hotel and motel, healthcare, and retail sectors are currently attempting to organize unions, and these efforts have received attention in the media. In addition, Fight for Fifteen is a movement concentrated in low-wage sectors that fights for a higher minimum wage ($15 an hour). The movement has been successful, with California, Massachusetts, New York (downstate), Maryland, New Jersey, Illinois, Connecticut, Florida, and Delaware passing $15 minimum wage laws. Cities like San Francisco, Seattle, and New York City have raised their minimum wages to $15. These movements should work hand in hand with a movement for housing coops, as the low-wage sectors of our economy have many workers in need of affordable housing.

Perhaps the unions in these sectors could allocate some money for coops.  Remember, the Amalgamated Housing Cooperative in New York City came about with the efforts of the Amalgamated Clothing Workers Union under the leadership of social democrat Sidney Hillman. It is the first co-op created by Founding President and Manager Abraham E. Kazan, known as “The father of cooperative housing in the United States.” New York Governor Franklin Roosevelt spoke of the coop in a positive manner: “Amalgamated Cooperative Apartment House is a significant development in this comparatively new sphere. It signifies the economic soundness of the cooperative conception as well as the assured success of both these housing undertakings which were inspired by the splendid ideal of mutual good and reciprocal benefit.

Let’s not forget the possibility of tenants’ unions playing a role as well. Tenants’ unions have made a different in California’s metros, known for high rents. Tenants in cities in California are organizing tenants’ unions in their buildings and communities and have been influential in passing new rent control ordinances for the first time in over 30 years. Organization has made a difference in the fight against landlord lobbyists, corporate developers, and realtors. Perhaps an alliance amongst sewer socialists, labor unions, tenants’ unions, non-profits that represent low wage workers could make a dent in the problem of affordable housing.

The original sewer socialists brought certain economic activities into municipal ownership that were natural monopolies or at least very capital intensive. We can use some municipal funds to tame the power of the real estate industry. It’s unrealistic to think that workers in low-wage sectors would have enough money to start apartment complexes and housing developments on their own, but several entities acting cooperatively could make a big difference.

Jason Sibert is the Executive Director of the Peace Economy Project in St. Louis.


Editor’s Note: Continuing our retrospective on the American “sewer socialism” movement.

By Jason Sibert

The state of Wisconsin has long been called a progressive state due to the prominence of socialist and progressive politicians in the state. However, contemporary politics’ emphasis on social issues has turned the state into a swing state in presidential elections. Since the presidential election of 1988, it went for the Democrat except for Donald Trump in 2016 due to third party candidates (Green Party Candidate Jill Stein and Libertarian Gary Johnson) and low turnout from Democrats. The closeness of presidential elections in Wisconsin, at least going back to the 1980s, means the Democrats must work hard to keep the state in their hands.

However, let’s take a trip down memory lane and look at a time when Wisconsin’s largest city – Milwaukee – was a hotbed of sewer socialists, people who were elected to office in major and mini-metropolitan areas and tried to make life better for the urban working class by the municipalization of natural monopolies (parks, sewers, utility companies, etc.), the quality delivery of public services, and quality management of taxpayers’ money. Milwaukee elected its first socialist mayor, Emil Seidel, in 1910. Mayor Seidel went to work to correct years of corruption in the Democratic and Republican parties, as he advocated strongly for the municipalization of utilities, but his most significant achievement was the reorganization of the city government. Seidel streamlined city administration by eliminating several departments and creating the Bureau of Economy and Efficiency, arguing that there would be fewer opportunities for politicians to skim the city budget. He also established the first municipal public works department and police and fire commissions in an American city and worked with the common council to raise the minimum wage for city laborers from $1.75 to $2.50 per day. In addition, the Milwaukee mayor made the 8-hour day standard for municipal crews, strengthened local Health Department inspections, and created the city’s park system. Although his two years as mayor had been quite productive and transformative, it made Democrats and Republicans more determined to unseat him. Another interesting fact: Seidel employed noted American poet Carl Sandberg as his personal secretary.

In his 1912 bid for reelecton, Seidel went up against a fusion Democratic-Republican ticket and was defeated by doctor, public health commissioner, and medical school professor named Gerhard Bading. However, Seidel would remain active in politics for the next several years. Socialist Party of America Presidential Candidate Eugene Debs chose him as a running mate in 1912. The Debs/Seidel ticket won six percent of the vote, the best for a socialist party presidential candidate in US history. Seidel was soundly defeated in another run for mayor in 1914. He won reelection as alderman in 1916 and continued in the job until 1920. He ran for Senate in 1932 and won six percent of the vote there as well. The sewer socialist once again returned to the office of Milwaukee alderman from 1932 to 1936.

Seidel died in Milwaukee on June 24, 1947, following an illness of several months’ duration related to complications from a heart condition. He was 82 years old. The legacy of sewer socialism would continue in Milwaukee after Seidel’s tenure as mayor, with Daniel Hoan and Frank Zeidler being elected to serve on as mayor after him.

Jason Sibert is the Executive Director of the Peace Economy Project in St. Louis.